Into the Warm Zone: Essential Elements and Considerations for Developing Warm Zone Capabilities

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Sam Miletta


Warm Zone, RTF, Tactical Medicine, Tactical Medic, (ASHE) Active Shooter Hostile Event., Intentional mass violence


In 2017, a scholarship funded study tour was undertaken to learn how agencies in the United States of America were addressing a capability gap in relation to accessing, treatment and rescue of victims located in the warm zone of Active Shooter Hostile Events. Since this initial trip a number of after action reports and reviews of such incidents have been released. This paper explores the key learnings from these events to establish several essential elements and important considerations for the development of multi-agency warm zone capabilities. The incidents looked at are the:

  • 2013 LAX Airport Active Shooter

  • 2015 San Bernardino Terrorist Attack

  • 2016 Pulse Nightclub Terrorist Attack

  • 2017 Las Vegas Mass Shooting

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